Management of the Group

The indicators used throughout the Group for profitability, value added and liquidity form the basis for operational and strategic management decisions at thyssenkrupp. We use them to set targets, measure performance and determine variable components of management compensation. For us, the most important financial indicators – the key performance indicators in accordance with GAS 20 – are adjusted earnings before interest and taxes (adjusted EBIT), thyssenkrupp Value Added (tkVA) and free cash flow before M & A (FCF before M & A).

As part of the strategy process the Group’s Executive Board defines long-term targets, also for the businesses. These form the framework for the short and medium term financial targets and also for the budget and medium term plans which are prepared by all units.

thyssenkrupp Key performance indicator

Adjusted EBIT

EBIT shows the profitability of a unit. It contains all elements of the income statement relating to operating performance. This also includes items of financial income/expense that can be characterized as operational, including income and expense from investments where there is a long-term intention to hold the assets. Adjusted EBIT is EBIT adjusted for special items, i.e. excluding disposal losses/gains from M & A (mergers & acquisitions) transactions, restructuring expenses, impairment charges/impairment reversals and other non-operating expenses and income. It is more suitable than EBIT for comparing operating performance over several periods.

The adjusted EBIT of the Group and the business areas and the special items are described in detail in the sections “Group review” and “Business area review” in the report on the economic position. Please also refer to the reconciliation in the segment reporting (Note 24).


tkVA is the value created in a reporting year. This indicator enables us to compare the financial performance of businesses with different capital intensity. tkVA is calculated as EBIT minus or plus the cost of capital employed in the business. Capital employed mainly comprises fixed assets, inventories and receivables. Deducted from this are certain non-interest-bearing liability items such as trade accounts payable. To obtain the cost of capital, capital employed is multiplied by the weighted average cost of capital (WACC), which includes equity, debt and the interest rate for pension provisions.
Information on tkVA in the reporting year can also be found in the section “Group review”.

FCF before M & A

FCF before M & A permits a liquidity-based assessment of performance in a period by measuring cash flows from operating activities excluding income and expenditures from material portfolio measures. It is measured as operating cash flow less cash flows from investing activities excluding cash inflows or outflows from material M & A transactions. This too links more directly to operating activities and facilitates comparability in multi-period analyses.
A reconciliation and details on the development of FCF before M & A are provided in the analysis of the statement of cash flows in the section “Results of operations and financial position”.

Definition change from 2020/2021

With effect from fiscal year 2020 / 2021 the definition of adjusted EBIT has been changed. The definition of special items has been narrowed to bring it more closely into line with treatment under IFRS. In the future restructuring expenses, impairment charges and disposal gains/losses are to be adjusted.

Source: Annual Report 2019/2020, p. 28-29